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When Francine Shapiro was walking in the garden in 1987. She noticed that eye movements seemed to reduce the negative emotions associated with sad memories. He believes that the effect of eye movements is small, And when he tried it. He found that other people also reacted similarly to eye movements. However, it seems that eye movement alone cannot produce a complete therapeutic effect. So Shapiro added other therapeutic agents, including cognitive components, and developed a standard procedure called “optical movement observation”. (EMD) 1.

Shapiro then conducted Case Study 4 and Controlled Study 1 to test the effectiveness of EMD. In a controlled study, almost 22 people with traumatic memories were randomly assigned to two cases: half received EMD. The other half received the same treatment with detailed descriptions of imaging and changing eye movements. To contact us please find here emdr trauma therapies He said that EMD led to a significant reduction in the level of personal problems and a significant increase in the level of positive confidence. The changes reported by EMD participants were much larger than those in the imaging mode.

Shapiro wrote:

“One link in this process is enough to leave subjects with traumatic memories. Significantly change their cognitive assessment 6”. Unfortunately, Shapiro is often misunderstood as claiming that “EMDR can cure [chronic pain disease] PTSD (F. Shapiro, 1989)”. 7 Shapiro never said that. What he really wrote is that the EMD system “can reduce stress… Therefore, we will not get rid of all the symptoms and complications of PTSD. Will we provide strategies to treat 8 victims,” ​​he said: “The average treatment time is five. Times “8 thoroughly treat post-traumatic stress disorder.

Since EMDR treatment is an effective treatment method. The results quickly won many customers. Shapiro feels morally obligated to teach other doctors so that PTSD patients can get help. However, EMDR is still an experiment because it has not been independently confirmed by other controlled studies. He tried to solve this ethical issue by teaching EMDR only in licensed clinics. Ensuring that everyone studying at the EMDR Institute receives the same training. Therefore, In this way, it can be monitored and the clinic will be taught to tell customers. The feedback system will allow anyone who has been trained to get the latest information. In 1995, after other controlled studies were published. However, The “experimental” label and training restrictions were removed from the manual and published. 13 Shapiro was criticized for his communication methods because he initially restricted education and studied experimental methods.


Exercise and Rehabilitation Disorder (EMDR) is a psychiatric treatment. That was originally designed to alleviate problems related to traumatic memory (Shapiro, 1989a, 1989b). Shapiro’s (2001) approach to cognitive information processes proves. That EMDR treatment can promote the acquisition and processing of traumatic memories and other negative life experiences. That leads to these cognitive solutions. After the successful treatment of EMDR,( emdr trauma therapies). Alleviates the problem of effect, reorganizes negative beliefs and reduces physical arousal. During EMDR treatment, the client continuously deals with a small number of emotional disorders while focusing on external stimuli.

Method of EMDR

They use Ophthalmology most commonly external stimulation. But also use a variety of other methods Including hand touch and sound stimulation (Shapiro, 1991). Shapiro (1995, 2001) estimated that EMDR treatment can facilitate access to traumatic memory networks. Improve information processing, and establish new relationships between traumatic memories and more adaptive memories or information. These expect new organizations to stand out from information processing integration, new learning, problem-solving and cognitive development. EMDR treatment uses three face-to-face protocols: (1) Analyze past events where they identify the deficiencies. Create new collaborative links with adaptive information. (2) Targeting the current pressure indication conditions and reducing internal and external stimuli. (3) Examples of it adds non-fiction future events to help customers master the necessary skills to complete logging activities.


EMDR treatment combines a variety of ingredients to improve the treatment effect. For complete details on vision, treatment sequence and protocol research, and active techniques, see F. Shapiro (2001) Delayed and Improved Eye Movement: Fundamentals, Protocols, and Procedures (Second Edition), New York: Guildford Press.

Phases of treatment are:

Stage 1: Phase 1 is the session to get the date. The therapist will evaluate the client’s readiness and develop a treatment plan. Clients and therapists described potential goals of using EMDR. These include sad memories and current conditions that cause emotional distress. Other goals may include events related to the past. The focus is on developing specific skills and attitudes to deal with future customer situations.

The initial EMDR intervention can adapt to childhood events. Then adapting to adult stress or serious events if the client has childhood problems. Consumers usually understand their own situation, solve emotional problems, and then begin to change their behavior. The duration of treatment depends on the number of lesions and the age of onset of PTSDGenerally. They successfully treat people with severe side effects in less than 5 hours. Victims with multiple injuries may require a longer treatment time.

Ensurance of discomfort in treatment:

Stage 2: In the second stage of treatment. The therapist ensures that the client has a variety of ways to deal with emotional discomfort. The therapist can teach clients various images and depression techniques for clients to use during and between treatment sessions. The purpose of EMDR therapy is to produce rapid and effective changes. While maintaining the balance of clients during and between treatment sessions.

Stage 3-6: In stages 3 to 6, the EMDR processing method is used to determine and use the target. These include three things that customers recognize:

1. Visual images related to memory

2. Negative beliefs about the soul

3. Related emotional and physical sensations.

In addition, customers showed sincerity. The therapist can help clients appreciate sincerity and enhance negative emotions. They instruct client to pay attention to images, negative thoughts, and physical emotions after that. While using two-dimensional stimuli for EMDR. (emdr trauma therapies)These devices may include eye movements, tapping, or making sounds. The type and length of these types are different for each customer. Currently, the EMDR client has an instruction to watch only spontaneous events.

Client’s role in EMRD treatment

After each stimulation, the doctor will instruct the client to empty his brain. However, Find any thoughts, feelings, images, memories, or emotions that come to mind. Based on the client’s report, the doctor will choose the next focus. During the meeting, these concentrated repetitive strain injuries occur more often. If the consumer feels sad or difficult. The therapist should follow standard procedures to help the client get back on track.

When the client reports any problems with the target memory. Ask him/her to consider the preferred positive beliefs determined at the beginning of the meeting. During this period, customers can adjust to be sincere as needed. Then concentrate on dealing with the next problematic incident.

Stage 7: In the seventh stage (end), the therapist asks the client to keep a diary within a week. The register must record any relevant information that may appear. So, It can remind customers of the stable activities of the second stage of learning.

Stage 8: The next session starts in stage 8. The eighth stage includes an analysis of the progress made so far. Therefore, EMDR therapy manages all related historical events, current events that exhibit anxiety, and future events that require different responses.

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