Pear is one of the important fruit crops after the apple, and it is native to mildly and coastal temperate areas of the world. This fruit family is the “Rosaceae” and “Pyrus” genus. You can grow this fruit in subtropical and temperate areas. Pears come with wider climatic and soil adaptability. The pear tree can grow to 10 to 16 metres tall and is a medium size tree. Farmers grow this fruit in Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh at 2000 to 2400 metres above sea level in India. Apart from this, low chilling varieties are compatible with subtropical regions of India.
How to Start Pear Fruit Farming in India?
You can get the best guidelines for pear fruit farming in the below section. However, for the ideal condition of farming, you should keep the information regarding which equipment is best in pear fruit farming. Several types of equipment are used in pear farming, such as tractors, implements, and harvesters. Tractors play a major role in the cultivation process. Therefore, you can choose the affordable tractor such as the mini tractor you can get in many brands like Sonalika, Mahindra etc. And also, you can get ACE Tractor and any other tractor prices online.
Pear fruit can grow ideally in wide climatic conditions and tolerate temperatures as low as -27ºC and as high as 44ºC. The chilling period keeps the disparity for each variety of pear. Spring frosts damage flowers, so you should avoid the lowlands for its cultivation. Likewise, you should avoid hail-prone areas affecting both plants and fruits.
You should grow the pear fruit in well-drained, rich, deep soil with a medium texture. For better growth and yield, it prefers relatively more clay soil. You can tolerate this crop in wet soil but not in drought conditions. The optimum 170 to 180 cm soil depth is recommended for fruit production and good root growth. Farmers grow pears on deeper soil that produces more yield than shallow soil. Due to iron deficiency on highly alkaline soils, the crop requires neutral 5.5 to 7.5 pH. The nitrogen soils are not optimum for pear crop farming due to fire blight and pear psylla presence in these soils.
Land Preparation and Planting
You should clear the land of all weeds, old roots, and stamps of previously grown plants. A Plough couple is enough to bring the soil to a fine tilth. You should level the land so that there should not be water stagnation. Usually, the layout system depends on the density of plants and land topography. In general, the rectangular system and square are followed. However, you can follow the contour system in hilly areas. Planting distance depends on variety, rootstock, soil fertility, training system adopted and climatic condition of the area in pear fruit farming. You should dig the 1 x 1 pit sizes and fill them with a soil mixture, well-rotted (FMY) farmyard manure, and 25 grams of BHC dust. Apart from this, you should prepare the basins immediately after planting. You should level the soil a little higher near the trunk than the basin to eschew direct contact with the trunk. Farmers should stake the plant to keep the tree stems straight. Remove any sprouts on rootstock and root suckers. They should give the water immediately to settle the soil.
Training and Pruning
In pear fruit cultivation, proper training and pruning should be done to spread the fruit growth evenly and maintain the growth. A central leader training system is followed in the pear crop. In this method, 4 or 5 limbs should be well developed during the initial 3 to the 4-year stage, and then the leader should be led. In the pruning process, a certain amount of thinning of the laterals growing outward and going back is considered sufficient.
Manures and Fertilisers
Normally a 10-year-old pear plant requires about 80 to 90 kg of well-rotted FMY, 650 to 700 g N, 300 to 350 g P205 and 650 to 700 g K2O. You should mass the full amount of Phosphorus and Potassium with farm manure. If nitrogen is used, apply 1/2 dose of N 21 days before flowering and the remaining half after fruit formation. Sufficient zinc and ferrous sulphate should be used if the soil is deficient in zinc and iron. You can do this while preparing the soil or the ground.
Farmers should irrigate the pits first to manage the soil. Farmers should do the water immediately after planting. They should give the next irrigation after 2 to 3 days of planting. They should carry the subsequent irrigations on a need basis. In heavy soils with high moisture content, the level of 1 m is very important for tree growth and fruit development. Farmers may require constant irrigation in the case of light soils. The loamy soil must have moisture at a depth of 1.5 m for better yield. In heavy rains, the water should not be well drained and stagnate. Excessive moisture will affect the colour and quality of the fruit. The irrigation frequency almost depends on the moisture-holding capacity of the soil. You should irrigate the trees at an interval of 3 weeks after harvesting pears in July-August. You can use drip irrigation in water problem areas.
Pests and Diseases
Blast, Crown, Fire blight and root rot, Spring pear cankerworm, Pear decline, Armillaria root rot, Leafrollers, Scab, Codling moth, and Pear psylla are the general pests and diseases found in pear fruit cultivation. For control measures, try to contact the nearest local agriculture department.
Harvesting and Packing
You can harvest pears when fruits are fully matured for fresh fruit consumption. In the case of long-distance markets or for canning purposes, they can be harvested when they are green and firm. Then, farmers should start grading based on the size and quality of fruit, except for any damaged fruit. Packing can be done in layers in plastic or cardboard boxes and wooden.
With information about pear fruit cultivation, you should also know the equipment that will help to boost the yield. Of course, tractors are an essential segment in every fruit cultivation. However, the John Deere tractor is the most effective tractor for farming, and you can easily check this Massey Ferguson tractor price list online.
For further information about pear fruit farming in India, stay tuned with us.